The remaining 2,253 genes had no hits to other hymenoptera (or only had hits to A. dorsata sequences). Chantawannakul P, Williams G, Neumann P. Editors. Seventy-three percent of the A. dorsata genes (9,900) had orthologs in at least one other species, versus 93% of the A. mellifera genes. For full access to this pdf, sign in to an existing account, or purchase an annual subscription. We used InterProScan 5 (Jones et al. Borodovsky M. Marchese CM, Flottum K. 2013. Repetitive elements were identified using (Chen 2004) (A.F.A. Apis dorsata is native to the tropical forests of southeast Asia, where it builds single-comb nests in the open under thick tree branches or man-made structures. In contrast to the previous A. dorsata assembly from 2013 (PRJNA174631), we have an improved assembly from a lower level of sequencing coverage. Another sets of SNAP and AUGUSTUS models were trained with the new outputs. Rafter Their coloration is highly variable depending on the geographic location and race, but quite similar to the European true honey bee. other true honey bee species, giant honey bee colonies can’t be transported for The Asian honey bee (Apis dorsata) is distinct from its more widely distributed cousin Apis mellifera by a few key characteristics. 2C and D). At any given time, the comb is covered by a curtain of up to 100,000 worker bees.

Apis dorsata, the giant honey bee is among the largest species of bees found mainly in forested areas of South and Southeast Asia ranging from Indian subcontinent up to southern China. A new section, "Methods", considers submissions dealing with statistical procedures and their problems, as well as with problems related to measurement techniques. Request Permissions. Individual heads and thoraces were chopped into small pieces and placed in 1.7 ml centrifuge tubes (∼25 mg of tissue per tube). Biology of Apis dorsata in Vietnam Nguyen Quang Tan To cite this version: Nguyen Quang Tan. In addition to the honey, harvested organic beeswax from giant honey

Saenphet K These authors contributed equally to this work. Simão et al.

Uncovering the novel characteristics of Asian honey bee, Biomedical activity and related volatile compounds of Thai honeys from 3 different honeybee species, Midgut bacterial communities in the giant Asian honeybee (, Allozyme variation and differentiation among four Apis species, BUSCO: assessing genome assembly and annotation completeness with single-copy orthologs, Automated generation of heuristics for biological sequence comparison, Detection and identification of Lactobacillus bacteria found in the honey stomach of the giant honeybee, Honeybees and other insect pollinators of cultivated plants: a review, Evolutionary ancient roles of serotonin: long-lasting regulation of activity and development. 2015). 2018). Additionally, the worker and reproductive castes are all of the same size in A. dorsata. pollination purposes. Check out using a credit card or bank account with. Giant Colonies are headed by a single queen and can host as up to 50,000 individuals, including about 5000 drones and … This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (, Large-scale phylogenetic analysis of trypanosomatid adenylate cyclases reveals associations with extracellular lifestyle and host-pathogen interplay, The influence of chromosomal environment on X-linked gene expression in, Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Diversity in Mammals: A Correlation between the Effective and Census Population Sizes, Dorsal Pigmentation and Its Association with Functional Variation in, Evolutionary and Comparative analysis of bacterial Non-Homologous End Joining Repair, Volume 12, Issue 10, October 2020 (In Progress), About the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution, https://github.com/sanger-pathogens/assembly-stats, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. One exemplar was kept intact; each of the remaining specimens was cut into three sections and placed in RNAlater Stabilization Solution (Invitrogen). The enriched InterPro signature IPR001127, a domain that is associated with the carbohydrate transport system in Lactobacillus bacteria, was found in six of the species-specific A. dorsata genes. A large single giant honey bee comb can contain upwards of 60,000 bees.

2017). 1): The total assembly size was 224 Mb (vs 225–230 Mb in other apid bees, Consortium 2006; Wang et al. Because of that, people are mainly interested in degraded forest areas where the only suitable nesting sites for these bees are

This distinct lifestyle, together with an exceptional level of defensive aggression (Breed et al. Singapore: Springer. 2004). hal-00892251 Apidologie 38 (2007) 221 229 Available online at: c INRA /DIB-AGIB /EDP Sciences, 2007 www.apidologie.org DOI: 10.1051 /apido:2007002 Original article Biology of Apis dorsata in Vietnam* …

Giant honey Inset bar charts indicate the fraction of genes from each species that were orthologous at different levels: Universal orthologs (present in all four species), species-specific genes (those found only in one species), and others. Three of these were potentially drifted offspring workers from genotyped queens of colonies nesting on the same tree. 2A and B). 2011) as from the particular locale where the honeybees forage. Giant honey bees are the largest of the honey bee species. For terms and use, please refer to our Terms and Conditions In order to investigate these differences, we performed whole genome sequencing of A. dorsata using a hybrid Oxford Nanopore and Illumina approach.

2008; Kaessmann 2010; Lisch 2013; Göke and Ng 2016), and the overrepresentation of transposable element-related signatures in the genome of A. dorsata, suggests that the evolution of “new” genes may have played a role in the behavioral diversification of A. dorsata from other honeybees. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account.

Both cladograms (A and C) are based on full-length gene alignments; in the interests of space, only a representative section of the full alignment is shown (B and D). combs. the rafters which placed conveniently at eye level provide easy access to the We identified a wide variety of repetitive elements (supplementary table 1, Supplementary Material online), and these comprised ∼7% of the genome. Apis dorsata is one of the most important bee species for agricultural producers and honey collectors in Asia because they produce substantial amount of honey and pollinate many of the economically important crops. The InterPro terms that were enriched in the A. dorsata genes that lacked A. mellifera homologs fell into two main functional categories. Origin of primate orphan genes: a comparative genomics approach. 2013; Park et al. FastTree: computing large minimum evolution trees with profiles instead of a distance matrix. The true honey bee species including Apis mellifera and Apis cerana indica aren’t natural hosts of Tropilaelaps mites, but easily can be parasitized by the mites in areas where both giant honey bees and true honey bees are present. This left 2,118 genes that appear to be either pseudogenes or species-specific A. dorsata genes because they had no hit to any sequence in the nr database.

option. © 1995 Springer We conducted Fisher’s exact tests (q-value < 0.01) to identify GO terms or InterPro signatures enriched in a test set of annotated genes relative to a reference set.

2015; Moran 2015). physics, engineering, mathematics, computer sciences, and economics. 2009) to approximately-maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees, with the options –nome (to compute minimum-evolution bootstrap support values) and -slow (to conduct exhaustive searches). All Rights Reserved. 2010). It also allows beekeepers to remove only the honey head to get multiple The resulting alignments were used to generate cladograms to visualize the relationship between different genes. Because serotonin has a stimulatory effect on aggression in some insects (Bubak et al. Several tubes were pooled after extraction. Previous research has shown that Lactobacillus species, which were the most common top hits for our A. dorsata-only sequences, play a major role in carbohydrate digestion (Lee et al. The colonies from Sabah nested in colony aggregations of 5 and 28 nests respectively on two trees.

Abstract. Dolinski K

The results of InterProScan analyses were similar: 1,956 genes had no InterPro signature. Chernoff YO Kriventseva EV

They build a single large comb up to 5 feet in length and 2 feet tall. Wood V Stewart FJ

23–54. All worker gut microbiomes studied to date contain abundant carbohydrate-processing genes, but the exact components of the microbiome community show variation between honeybee strains and species (Engel et al. The male bees are called drones.

The remaining specimens were sent to the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratories for DNA extraction and sequencing. (2015) using the Insecta data set (1,658 single-copy conserved genes) as a reference. 2005).